Reliabledating com

Carmelandthere- newalof theexcavationsat Hayonim Cave;thecompletionof theexcavationsat Amud Caveandthediscoveryof additionalhumanremainsthere;andtheexcavationsof the Mousterianrocksheltersandcavesinsouthern Jordansuchas Tor Faraj, Tor Sabihaand Ain Difla. During the same period ESR, TL, and Amino Acid Racemization readings were obtained in sitessuch as Qafzeh, Kebara, Tabun, Amud, Tor Faraj, Tor Sabiha, and Ain Di- fla.

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We hope that both the authors and thereaderswillunderstandtheconstraintsanddifficultiesinvolvedin thistask.

Oneof the morecommonissuesisthespellingof Neandertals,whichwasoriginally written with“th” buthasbeenshortenedinrecentyearstoonly“t.”Wealso favoredtheterm“Near East” rather than“Middle East,”andhavechosentospell“Paleo”assuchrather than“Palaeo.” We have standardized the references to dates of thousands and millions of years by using ka for thousands and Ma for millions.

Both the newfossil relics and the ones discovered in the past raised numerous issues ontwofronts:theapproximatetaxonomicstatusof thesehumans;andthepossiblerela- tionshipsbetweenthosetraditionallyclassifiedas Neandertalsandthemodernhumans thatwerealsonamed as“proto-Cro-Magnons.”Disagreementsconcerningtaxonomicand paleobehavioralaspectsmadeitobviousthatinvestigatorsfromdifferentcountriesand variousschoolsneededtomeettodiscussthemostupdatedresultsof theirscientificin- quiries.

Theresultwastheorganizationof thefirstmeetingatthe Universityof Tokyoin 1990 (Akazawa et al.1992).

Neandertals and Modern Humansin Western Asia Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia Edited by Takeru Akazawa International Research Center for Japanese Studies Kyoto, Japan Kenichi Aoki Universityof Tokyo Tokyo, Japan and Ofer Bar-Yosef Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW e Book ÌSBN:0-306-47153-1 Print ÌSBN: 0-306-45924-8 ©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow Print ©1998 Plenum Publishers New York All rights reserved No part of this e Book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Kluwer Online at: Kluwer's e Bookstore at: Researchinrecent years placed Western Asiain a centralpositionconcerning thede- bateontheoriginof modernhumans.