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DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity.
The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication.
Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA.
Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes.
During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes.
Both chains are coiled round the same axis, and have the same pitch of 34 ångströms (3.4 nanometres).
The pair of chains has a radius of 10 ångströms (1.0 nanometre).
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.